Tag Archives: polysubstance abuse

Hydrocodone and Alcohol

Combining any drug with alcohol can lead to an overdose and should be avoided. Some combinations, such as hydrocodone and alcohol, are especially dangerous. Generally speaking, drinking alcohol should always be avoided after taking any kind of medication. However, in order to understand why, it is important to know the risks of mixing drugs. 

What is Hydrocodone?

Hydrocodone is an opioid agonist which is used to treat moderate-to-severe pain. It is a moderately potent opioid containing acetaminophen. It works by binding to and activating the mu-opioid receptors in the central nervous system, which in return causes analgesia (inability to feel pain), euphoria, cough suppression, respiratory depression and physical dependence. Hydrocodone’s other side effects include:

  • Stomach pain
  • Dry mouth
  • Tiredness
  • Headache
  • Back pain
  • Muscle tightness
  • Painful urination
  • Ringing ears
  • Insomnia
  • Swelling of extremities

Its ability to cause a sense of euphoria is common amongst all opioids. This euphoria is one of the primary reasons hydrocodone and opioids in general are considered to be highly addictive substances. However, hydrocodone is not commonly considered a powerful opioid, and some people mistakenly see it as a “safe” drug. 

The Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) categorizes drugs based on their potential for abuse and medical utility. For example, a Schedule I drug has no medical uses and has a very high potential for abuse. These include heroin, LSD, ecstacy and peyote. Hydrocodone is classified as a Schedule II drug, as it has some identified medical purposes but a high potential for abuse, addiction, and other health risks.

Hydrocodone is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. Depressants actively slow down critical nerve functions, such as breathing and cognitive ability. Alcohol is also a CNS depressant and has similar effects. Mixing the two increases the risk of experiencing an overdose.

Hydrocodone and Alcohol

What Happens During an Overdose?

An overdose is simply the body’s negative response to more of a drug or chemical than it can handle. It can occur when taking too much of a drug or when combining two or more drugs which have similar effects. CNS depressants cause critical nerve function to slow down – specifically, the risk lies mostly with the respiratory system (since opioids slow down breathing). If you consume too much of a depressant, an overdose can occur. Not all overdoses are fatal; however, they can cause long-term organ damage. Without a consistent oxygen supply, the brain can experience permanent damage. If breathing is severely or completely impaired for any length of time, a fatal overdose is very likely. 

Other signs of an overdose include:

  • Dilated pupils
  • Confusion
  • Paranoia
  • Chest pain
  • Gurgling sounds
  • Blue lips and fingers
  • High body temperature
  • Unresponsiveness 
  • Convulsions
  • Tremors
  • Unconsciousness
  • Vomiting

If you think someone has overdosed, call emergency services immediately. The ability to recognize an overdose in its early stages could be the difference between a fatal and non-fatal overdose.

Hydrocodone and Alcohol

What Happens When You Mix Hydrocodone and Alcohol?

Given that both drugs are CNS depressants, combining them makes overdose is more likely. The the body will suffer the combined effects of the opioid and alcohol, which may be too much for it to handle. Generally speaking, when combining two or more drugs, the drugs work to enhance each other’s negative side effects (without increasing any positive ones). This applies to hydrocodone and alcohol. However, even without the overdose risk, the combined influence of the two drugs can cause you to engage in dangerous behavior (such as driving) while under the influence, and increase the risk of accidents. 

Hydrocodone and Alcohol

How long does Hydrocodone stay in your system?

Hydrocodone has a half-life of 3-5 hours. This means it will take 3-5 hours for the ingested dose to effectively reduce to half of its original dose. If you take 10mg of hydrocodone, it will take 3-5 hours for that to reduce down to 5mg in your body. Even after the effects have worn off, drug tests can reveal the presence of hydrocodone in the body for days or weeks. Hydrocodone leaves the body faster than other opioids, but can still be detected in saliva 12-36 hours after last ingestion, in urine 2-4 days, and in hair for up to 90 days.

How quickly the body metabolizes hydrocodone differs from person to person. Various factors such as body fat percentage, age, history with the drug, and organ function all play a role in how effectively your body is able to process drugs and chemicals.

Hydrocodone and Alcohol: Getting help

Addiction is considered a chronic illness ,which means it has the same relapse rates as other chronic diseases. This can make lifelong sobriety very difficult. However, it does not make it impossible. The journey is different for everyone, and most people need professional assistance. A professional can help diagnose and treat the underlying causes behind the addiction, rather than just attempting to manage the symptoms. If you or a loved one is struggling with addiction, please contact us today so that we can help begin your journey to sobriety.

Benadryl and Alcohol

While most people associate drug overdoses with intentional drug abuse, common over-the-counter drugs can still pose a risk when mixed with other substances. This includes combinations such as Benadryl and alcohol. 

What is Benadryl?

Benadryl (Diphenhydramine) is an antihistamine medication used to treat mild allergies caused by insect bites, poisonous plants (such as poison oak and ivy), pollen, and some allergic reactions to animals. It is an over-the-counter medicine (OTC). This means that it does not require a prescription and people don’t generally think of it as a dangerous drug. There have been some cases of teens abusing Benadryl in order to experience its sedative effects. However, there is no evidence suggesting it is an addictive drug. The danger with Benadryl and other common OTC drugs is that sometimes people forget that they have taken them and proceed to consume other substances. 

Benadryl and Alcohol

Benadryl is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant, much like alcohol. CNS depressants slow down critical brain and nerve function. This depressive effect can be heightened when mixed with other depressants. Most of the time, people do not set out to mix Benadryl and alcohol. Rather, they don’t know the combination can be dangerous or simply forget they took it before drinking. Diphenhydramine’s half-life is 3.4 to 9.2 hours. In other words, if you take 10mg of Benadryl, it will take at least 3.4 hours for that amount to reduce to 5mg in your body. 

Alcohol and Benadryl: What Are the Risks?

Unintentionally mixing of two or more drugs can cause overdoses, especially if one of them is alcohol. When people take them together intentionally, it is called polysubstance abuse. The danger with Benadryl and other similar OTC drugs is that their half-lives are quite long. It can be easy to take an appropriate dose of Benadryl and forget about it later in the day when consuming alcoholic beverages. If the Benadryl and alcohol overpower the nervous system, experiencing an overdose is possible. 

Benadryl and Alcohol

Diphenhydramine Side Effects

Antihistamines such as diphenhydramine have side effects that can become stronger when combined with alcohol. In general, mixing two or more drugs will enhance their negative effects. Some of Benadryl’s side effects include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Constipation
  • Stomach aches 
  • Blurred vision
  • Dry mouth

Alcohol consumption poses an additional risk to people taking Benadryl. Some medications contain alcohol and should not be taken with antihistamines. These include laxatives and cough syrups. While mixing the two medications will not necessarily lead to overdose, it will likely cause intense discomfort and make the user feel as if they were drunk. Further, operating machinery or vehicles while mixing Benadryl with alcohol or another drug containing alcohol can lead to heavy impairment and could result in serious injury or death.

Benadryl for Sleep

Some people intentionally take Benadryl to help them fall asleep. This is due to the drowsiness the drug can cause, though doctors do not generally recommend it. While it is sometimes prescribed as a sleep aid, you should never take it for sleep without consulting a doctor or medical professional first. If you have trouble sleeping, it is best to consult a doctor who can then advise or prescribe the proper medication for the situation. 

Benadryl and Alcohol FAQ’s

Can you die when taking Benadryl and alcohol?

While mixing Benadryl and alcohol can lead to heavy sedation and an impared mental state, it is unlikely you will experience a fatal overdose from the mixture alone. The real risk lies in activities you might perform while impaired. Driving after taking Benadryl is never a good idea. When it is mixed with any amount of alcohol, it can pose serious driving risks. 

How long does Benadryl stay in your system?

Benadryl’s half life is 3 to 9 hours. This means the drug will typically leave the system within 24-48 hours. However, improper liver or kidney function can increase this window. There are no Benadryl drug tests, and employers will not look for it when testing for other substances. However, this does not mean it won’t be harmful to your health when not taken as directed.

Can a Benadryl and alcohol overdose cause shaking hands?

Alcohol consumption can cause an uncontrollable shaking, though this is not a common side effect. However, different people experience different reactions with Benadryl and alcohol, and all medications should be supervised when possible. Uncontrollable shaking can also mean an overdose, in which case you should seek medical attention immediately. An overdose commonly occurs when drug stimuli overwhelm the CNS, leading to critical organ failure. Since Benadryl and alcohol are both CNS depressants, it is possible to mix the two and experience an overdose at high enough levels. Some signs of an overdose include:

  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Breath cessation 
  • Blue fingers or lips
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Confusion
  • Unconsciousness
  • Dizziness
  • Seizures

Benadryl and Alcohol

Getting Help

Addiction can take many forms and may not be easy to recognize at first. If you are consistently taking Benadryl or alcohol in large quantities to self-medicate for any reason, it may be time to seek help. Getting professional help can ensure that you are addressing the root causes and not just managing symptoms. If you or a loved one is struggling with any form of addiction, please contact us today so that we can help you on your journey to recovery.

Speedballing

Speedballing is combining heroin and cocaine. For many users, it brings about a longer-lasting, more intense high. However, it comes with a serious risk of experiencing a fatal overdose. 

What is Speedballing?

Speedballing involves mixing heroin, which is an opioid, and cocaine, a stimulant. With strong pain-killing potential, heroin is derived from morphine. Even though some opioids, such as fentanyl and methamphetamine, can have medical uses,  heroin is considered to be too addictive and has too high of a potential for abuse to have any medical use. Most drugs which lack medical use and are considered generally dangerous to an individual’s health are listed as  Schedule I drugs by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). 

Speedballing

A common misconception is that the stimulating effects of cocaine and the depressive effects of heroin cancel each other out, causing a risk-free high. However, mixing the two drugs can cause long term health effects and increase the likelihood of experiencing a fatal overdose. 

How does Heroin affect the body?

In order to better understand how mixing the two drugs can increase the overall risk, it can be helpful to better understand how the drugs work independently. Heroin is an opioid. Opioids are powerful painkillers which bind to the opiate receptors in the brain and spinal cord. To put it simply, these opiate receptors help receive nerve impulses that indicate the body is in pain. By binding to these receptors, the body can better suppress physical pain. In addition to its ability to rid feelings of pain, opioids can create a euphoric high in individuals. This is the main driver behind its illicit use.

This euphoric high promotes the body to release dopamine, the “feel good chemical,” in large amounts. Dopamine is the chemical our body releases when it receives a pleasurable input. This dopamine release is what motivated early humans to hunt and reproduce. In modern days, humans get dopamine from various inputs, such as eating, drinking, playing video games, and even being on our phones. This pursuit of pleasure is commonly what drives addiction, especially when coupled with mental health disorders (commonly referred to as  co-occuring disorders or dual diagnoses).

Further, opioids slow down brain and nerve function. This is partly the cause of the euphoric high people experience while taking these drugs. The drug can slow critical organ function such as breathing and heart rate to dangerously low levels. At a certain point, the drug can cause the complete cessation of these functions, causing an overdose. 

Speedballing

How does Cocaine affect the body?

Cocaine is a very powerful stimulant, and like opioids, it causes the release of dopamine into the body – making it a highly addictive drug. Cocaine highs usually come with very intense feelings of energy and alertness. This drug essentially functions as the opposite of opioids. Cocaine overdoses are more rare than opioid overdoses; however, it is still very possible to do so if the levels become too toxic for the body to handle. As with opioids, the body will develop a tolerance to cocaine, making it harder and harder to achieve the same euphoric high feeling after consecutive uses. This leads users to take more of the drug each time, in hopes that it will recreate the same high they first felt. These increasing doses can eventually overwhelm the body and cause an overdose. 

Speedballing Side Effects

The mixture of cocaine and heroin can be ingested either by mixing the two drugs together and injecting or snorting it, or “piggybacked,” where the user injects one drug immediately after the other. Speedballing can cause serious long term effects on the brain, liver, and heart. It can also cause a fatal overdose. Other side effects of speedballing include:

  • Stroke
  • Heart attack
  • Aneurysm
  • Respiratory failure
  • Confusion 
  • Blurry vision
  • Drowsiness
  • Uncontrollable movements
  • Paranoia 
  • Insomnia 

Also, given the depressive and stimulant effects of the drugs, the body will experience a push and pull effect. This means that the effects of one drug will overcome the other momentarily. The heart rate may rapidly increase and decrease, leading to arrhythmias and heart failure. 

In general, mixing two or more drugs (polysubstance abuse) will cause the drugs to enhance each other. This may sound like a more enjoyable experience, but it also enhances the side effects drastically. 

In 2015 alone, there were 4,271 cocaine related deaths which involved any opioid; 3,481 of those directly involved heroin. This consisted of 65.4% of all cocaine-related deaths that year. Therefore, mixing heroin and cocaine can be directly related to an increase in the chance of death.

Getting help for Speedballing

Cocaine and heroin are two very addictive drugs which are extremely hard to quit. Given the complexities of these drugs, always seek professional help when attempting to recover. This is especially important since powerful withdrawal symptoms can occur when quitting either substance. Find a professional who understands your circumstances and can help you cure your addiction rather than just manage symptoms. Recovery is absolutely possible, but you do not need to do it alone. If you have any questions, or you or a loved one needs help beginning the road to recovery, please contact us today.

Klonopin and Alcohol

Recreational drug users will often mix a substance with alcohol to enhance the effects of the drugs for an overall better high. Whether or not the mixing was intentional, combining any drug with alcohol can have dire consequences. Klonopin and alcohol are substances where there is frequent misuse and abuse. Many fail to realize the dangers in the combination.

What is Klonopin?

Klonopin is the brand name for Clonazepam. It is a benzodiazepine primarily in use to treat certain seizure and panic disorders in adults and children. It can also help relieve anxiety, relieve muscle spasms and help with sleep which are attributes of its benzodiazepine properties. Klonopin works by increasing the effects of the Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter which essentially slows brain and nerve function. 

What is a benzodiazepine?

Benzodiazepines or “benzos” are one of the most prescribed medications in the United States and help treat anxiety, insomnia, seizures and panic attacks in patients. It can be broadly described as a central nervous system depressant. Given that nearly 40 million American adults suffer from anxiety, it is no wonder why the drug is so popular. Unfortunately, as with any popular drug, comes the issue of abuse and increase in illicit availability. Some popular benzos include Xanax and Valium which are known to be addictive drugs especially when some users take benzos in order to achieve a recreational, euphoric high.

klonopin and alcohol

Benzos have a variety of side effects such as:

  • Drowsiness
  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Trembling
  • Impaired coordination
  • Vision problems
  • Grogginess
  • Feelings of depression
  • Headache

In addition, Klonopin has other side effects such as:

  • Depression
  • Loss of orientation
  • Sleep issues
  • Problems with thinking 
  • Memory problems
  • Dry mouth
  • Slurred speech
  • Diarrhea and constipation

How long does Klonopin stay in your system?

Clonazepam has a uniquely long half-life when compared with that of other drugs at around 20-50 hours. The half-life of a drug refers to the amount of time it takes for the drug to reduce to half of its originally taken dose. In other words, If you take 10mg of Clonazepam, it will take 20-50 hours for that 10mg to effectively become 5mg once ingested. Keep in mind that just because a drug has a certain half-life and elimination period, does not mean that it cannot be discovered via drug testing. Some Clonazepam metabolites such as 7-aminoclonazepam can be detected in urine upto 3 weeks after ingestion and others can be detected up to 30 days after.

Is Klonopin addictive?

The Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) schedules or categorizes thousands of drugs based on their potential for abuse and medical utility. Klonopin and by extension, Clonazepam, is in the category of being a schedule IV drug. According to the DEA, a schedule IV drug has “a low potential for abuse relative to substances in Schedule III.” 

However, the DEA still considers it to be somewhat addictive and dangerous. In 2016, the American Association of Poison Control Centers indicated that there were 74,050 cases involving some type of benzodiazepine along with 14 deaths reported. Klonopin may not be as addictive as other drugs such as opioids, however, it is still very much possible to develop a dependency in as little as two weeks.

klonopin and alcohol

Like most benzos, Klonopin users will develop a tolerance over time which can be dangerous as it promotes the use of higher doses. A tolerance is your body’s way of getting adjusting to an outside stimulus. The more you experience something, the more your body becomes normal or indifferent to it. For drug users, that means the euphoric high they first experienced may never occur at that intensity ever again. However, in order to get close to it, users will continuously increase their dosage potentially until overdose. 

Mixing Klonopin and Alcohol

Klonopin and alcohol are both central nervous system depressants which help calm people down by slowing critical brain function. However, these CNS depressants also slow breathing and other nerve function, making it dangerous to combine the two. Many people will however mix alcohol and some form of benzo, as the DEA states, “Benzodiazepines are also used to augment alcohol’s effects and modulate withdrawal states.”

Mixing any two drugs will usually result in an enhanced effect from both drugs. However, mixing two CNS depressants can lower critical organ function such as breathing until it stops, causing an overdose. Mixing the two drugs can also cause serious impairment and promote dangerous behavior which otherwise would have been avoided such as driving or operating machinery.

Some signs of an overdose include slowed and shallow breathing, confusion, unresponsiveness and slow reflexes. In extreme cases, overdoses can cause death and therefore require immediate assistance from medical professionals. 

Treatment

klonopin and alcohol

Treatment for addiction can be challenging. Addiction is considered to be a chronic illness which means it has similar relapse rates as other illnesses such as type II diabetes. Addiction to multiple substances, like Klonopin and alcohol, does further complicate treatment. However, this is not to say it is impossible. Plenty of people have recovered and moved on to living a life of sobriety. We recommend that you seek the help of a trained professional who can help diagnose the causes rather than just manage the symptoms. If you or a loved one is struggling with addiction, please contact us today so we can begin your journey to lifelong recovery, together.

Ketamine and Alcohol

Many people have seen ketamine on the news as a rising drug of concern. While many think of it as a ‘horse tranquilizer’, though it acts as an anesthetic, there are other uses. Additionally, a lot of research is still necessary to fully understand it. A lot of people use ketamine recreationally and frequently in a party setting. Subsequently, ketamine and alcohol is an increasingly common combination with many not realizing the dangers.

What is Ketamine?

Ketamine is a common dissociative drug with use as an anesthetic for medical purposes. However, as is the case with many medical drugs, it is possible to find and buy on the street. Dissociative drugs distort the users perception of sound and sight. Many users report feeling expressions of dissociation from their body and mind and find it rather calming. It is possible for an out of mind experience to produce powerful effects and leave the user craving more. This often occurs given its blissful and calming effects. However, these effects are also addictive and can cause a user to abuse ketamine in order to feel happy or high. Some clinical trials show the possibility of using ketamine as an antidepressant. However, there is not yet approval due to the lack of understanding on how ketamine affects the brain chemically.

ketamine and alcohol

Ketamine was developed as a replacement for phencyclidine (PCP) but was discovered to have a high potential for abuse and was later categorized as a controlled substance by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). Specifically, ketamine is a Schedule III which according to the DEA indicates that it has “ a moderate to low potential for physical and psychological dependence.” Ketamine affects many neurotransmitters in the brain, but its full chemical mechanism is not yet understood. So far, scientists believe that it blocks the release of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), which is an excitatory neurotransmitter. NMDA is part of the glutamate class of neurotransmitters which represent one of the largest groups of transmitters in the brain. When released, NMDA speeds up brain function and the firing of neurons in the brain and spinal cord; therefore, when ketamine blocks the release of NMDA, the anesthetic and dissociative functions begin.

ketamine and alcohol

Side Effects

Like any drugs, even if someone perceives there are positive effects, there are negative side effects as well. There are plenty of side effects from taking ketamine which often worsen in combination with other drugs. Some side effects include:

  • Bloody or cloudy urine
  • Bluish lips or skin
  • Blurred vision
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Confusion
  • Convulsions
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Fainting
  • Vertigo
  • Skin rash
  • Hallucinations
  • Sweating
  • Increased heart rate

Ketamine’s design is to slow brain function in order to help patients feel no pain during surgeries. Given that it slows brain function, it has the ability to affect respiratory performance by slowing your breathing down. 

Mixing Ketamine and Alcohol

Alcohol, when taken in smaller doses, can have stimulant-like effects on the body and brain; however, it is classified as a depressant. A central nervous system depressant slows down critical CNS functions such as breathing and coordination. When mixing two or more drugs (also known as polysubstance abuse), the effects of one will enhance the effects of the other. In other words, the depressive effects of alcohol will enhance the depressive effects of ketamine and vice-versa. While ketamine overdoses are rare on their own, mixing it with alcohol can greatly increase the chances of a fatal overdose. 

ketamine and alcohol

What is an OD?

An overdose, or commonly referred to as an OD, is your body’s negative biological response to having taken too much of a substance or mix of substances. Someone overdosing from a depressant (such as alcohol) will experience a severe drop in blood pressure, body temperature and breathing. A fatal overdose can occur if the effects of the overdose are so powerful, that breathing completely stops. Again, while ketamine overdoses are quite rare, mixing it with alcohol (or any other powerful depressant such as opioids or benzodiazepines) will exacerbate the overall response and can cause an overdose.

Treatment

substance use disorder

Addiction is considered to be a chronic disease which means that the genetic disposition to have addictive behaviors can be passed down from family members- similar to how other diseases such as Type II Diabetes can be inherited. That also means that addiction has similar relapse rates as some chronic diseases which is why seeking professional treatment and guidance is important in achieving a sober life. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), In 2017, 19.7 million Americans battled with a substance use disorder- and that number is on the rise. With more and more people dealing with the difficulties of addiction, many are finding that professional treatment and support groups offer the best chance at rehabilitation. If you or a loved one is suffering with addiction, please contact us today so we can work together to achieve a sober life.

Sleeping Pill Overdose

When people think about overdosing, sleeping pills are usually on the bottom of the list of drugs that can cause an overdose. Many individuals seem to think that sleeping pills improve the quality of sleep and therefore it has to be ok or at the very least, harmless to the body. Realistically, how much damage could come from sleeping? Unfortunately, the dangers of sleeping pills is commonly underestimated and can cause your sleep to worsen, and potentially result in permanent damage or even death. 

Sleep 101

Sleep feels amazing. There is no doubt about that. However, many people struggle with falling asleep and staying asleep. According to the Sleep Research Society (SRS), the US economy loses $63 billion each year due to loss in productivity related to insomnia. Further, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) reports that nearly 35% of Americans do not get the recommended 7 hours of sleep per night. The causes of insomnia and other sleep issues are very complex. In some cases, there are reports of family history, depression, increasing work hours and even obesity as a cause for insomnia. Other issues such as the blue light emitted from our devices can contribute to sleep disorders. 

sleeping pill overdose

Millions of Americans use sleeping pills to help achieve better sleep and there are many options to pick from. For example, Benzodiazepine (benzos) sedatives are powerful prescription medications which sedate the body. Benzos are a less popular option due to the high potential for developing a dependence to the drug. Other popular options include Ambien, a sedative which falls under the hypnotic class of drugs, or Melatonin, a very common OTC sleep aid.

sleeping pill overdose

Can You Overdose on Sleeping Pills?

The short answer to “can you overdose on sleeping pills’ is yes. It is indeed possible to suffer a potentially fatal overdose on drugs such as Ambien. However, it is quite rare. Instead, most people will find that taking large doses or mixing sleeping aids with other drugs will produce a very bad experience, or in severe cases, permanent damage to the body. Sleeping pills in the past were more dangerous than they are now (such as Halcion) and saw high use among suicidal people as the idea of slowly falling asleep and never waking up sounded more pleasant.

Newer sleeping pills and sedatives have a design meant to help reduce the possibility of an overdose. For example, Ambien is typically prescribed in 10mg doses. Anything above 600mg can put you into overdose territory and cause permanent damage to your body. 2000mg is reported to be the fatal dose of Ambien- 200x the recommended dose.

Side Effects of Sleeping Pills

While all sleeping pills help induce some form of lethargy and sedation, different types of sedatives can have different side effects. 

For example, some side effects of pills such as Ambien, Rozerem, and Halcion include:

  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Heartburn
  • Headache
  • Weakness
  • Stomach pain

In some severe cases, people may experience parasomnias. Parasomnias are involuntary actions during sleep which you are not aware of or have control of. Some parasomnia behaviors include sleepwalking, sleep eating, making phone calls or even sleep driving. It is difficult to predict if you will experience parasomnia until you try taking sleeping aids. 

sleeping pill overdose

What Does a Sleeping Pill Overdose Look Like?

A sleeping pill overdose may be hard to identify at first. Most pills help people sleep by sedating the individuals central nervous system and slowing brain activity until they fall asleep. The danger of taking too much is that the drug will suppress the body too much and critical organs such as your lungs, slowly cease to work. This can be worsened when sleeping pills are combined with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants.

Some indicators of a sleeping pill overdose are:

  • Extreme lethargy- By design, these medications will make you feel tired and very lethargic. However, there is a noticable difference between just sleepy and unable to function properly. In the latter case, it may be smart to contact emergency services just in case. 
  • Breathing problems- As mentioned, sedatives slow critical bodily function. However, a healthy dose will not make it uncomfortable and should be barely noticeable. If bodily functions begin to slow too much, this may be a sign of an overdose. Paying attention to breathing patterns is usually a good indicator of whether or not someone is experiencing an overdose.

Unfortunately, sleeping pill overdoses may even go unnoticed by the victim as they are fast asleep and too sedated to do anything about it. It may take the help of a bystander to get someone the help they need.

sleeping pill overdose

Sleeping Pills and Alcohol

While it is unlikely that someone will overdose on just sleeping pills, the mixing of any two central nervous system depressants can greatly increase the risk of an overdose. CNS depressants slow critical body function like breathing and brain function. Mixing ambien and alcohol for example can overpower the body causing the cessation of breathing and dangerously low brain and heart function. The mixing of two drugs is also known as polysubstance abuse and brings about its own deadly set of consequences.

Sleeping pills are not the only option when seeking better quality sleep. Usually, people struggle with getting sleep because of environmental and behavioral habits. Some ways to manage your sleep are:

  • Reducing stress or finding ways to manage it by picking up hobbies such as yoga
  • Better time management
  • Avoiding stimulants such as nicotine and caffeine in the evenings
  • Drinking more water
  • Avoiding daytime naps
  • Eating healthy food
sleeping pill overdose

The Bottom Line

Sleeping pills can be helpful for those who suffer from insomnia and other sleep disorders. However, everything comes in moderation and taking more of a sleeping aid does not mean you will enjoy a better night’s sleep. In fact, taking too much of an aid like melatonin, can cause more sleep problems and make you feel less rested and more tired the next day. It is always recommended that you moderate your use to the prescribed amount and always seek professional opinion before taking any sleep supplements.

If you or a loved one you know is suffering from dependence to sleeping pills, please contact us today so we can help you on your path to recovery.

DXM and Kratom

Popular culture and media is bringing the issue of cough medicine abuse to light. Unfortunately, rather than presenting the dangers of abusing or mixing cough medication, many forms of media tend to glorify the drug. It is reported that 1 in 20 teens have taken DXM to achieve a recreational high. Some users choose to take the stance that its a ‘better’ addiction than alcohol or opioids- however, abusing any medication carries serious risks and consequences. Increasingly, people are experimenting with a combination of DXM and kratom.

What is DXM?

Dextromethorphan or more commonly known as a DXM is an over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medication. DXM is from a derivative of morphine, a very powerful opioid, but is not technically an opioid. Due to the effects it can have, it behaves like an opioid without the painkilling effects. It is effective at suppressing the average cough and creates some sedation which can help sick individuals relax or fall asleep. Unfortunately, when taken in much higher doses, DXM sometimes causes individuals to experience a euphoric high which is then sought after. 

According to the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), DXM is an antitussive (a type of medication used to stop a cough) found in over 120 cold medications (such as Vicks 44, NyQuil, Robitussin). The typical dosage is 15-30mg taken 3-4 times a day. When abused however, individuals can end up taking 100-1500mg a day. The DEA provides a ranking of “plateaus” which describes how users can manipulate different doses to achieve different effects.

  1. 100-200mg → Mild stimulation
  2. 200-400mg → Euphoria and hallucinations
  3. 300-600mg → Distorted visual perceptions, loss of motor coordination
  4. 500-1500mg → Dissociative sedation

The DEA will schedule certain drugs it deems to be dangerous and hazardous to the public’s health under its own classification system. For example, Methamphetamine is considered a schedule 1 drug and therefore is very dangerous. DXM is not classified under this system. It is typically found in liquid form but illicit websites and users have begun selling the drug in capsule or powder form.

DXM Side Effects

Some side effects of DXM include:

  • Sweating
  • Rashes or red, blotchy skin (not an allergic reaction)
  • Dizziness
  • Lethargy
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of coordination
  • Slurred speech
  • Impaired judgment
  • Reduced cognitive ability
  • Nystagmus, or rapid eye movements
  • Visual disturbances
  • Liver damage
  • Disorentiation

In high doses, the effects of DXM mimic those of Ketamine and PCP. A DXM overdose is possible if an individual takes enough of it. Given its suppressive effects, it can cause slowed breathing and critical organ function. 

How Long Does DXM Stay In Your System?

Testing for DXM is rare because of its common use as a cough suppressant. However, the drug can trigger false positives for PCP. DXM has a half-life of around 4 hours. A substance’s half-life is the time it takes for the chemical to reduce to 50% of its original size. Given its half-life elimination time, it can be assumed that most users can get rid of the chemical around 16.5 and 33 hours. While the chemical itself may be gone, this does not mean that traces cannot be tested for. 

DXM can be detected in:

  • Urine 24-48 hours after ingestion
  • Blood 3-24 hours after ingestion
  • Saliva does not apply as most OTC medications are taken orally
  • Hair up to 90 days after ingestion

What is Kratom?

Kratom is a plant found in Southeast Asia which is beginning to find its way into U.S. markets. Its leaves contain a chemical which produces a psychotropic (mind-altering) effect. The use of kratom is still pretty minimal in the U.S. but as of now, there is no nationwide ban or enforcement of the drug. In fact, most users can buy it online, although some states have banned the substance. According to the National Poison Data System, between 2011-2017 there were 11 deaths associated with kratom use.

dmx and kratom

Kratom’s effects are unpredictable. It is possible to use as a stimulant in lower doses, but can also have a heavy sedative effect when taken in higher doses. The lack of research on the effects of kratom makes it difficult to fully understand the negative side-effects. However, users can expect to experience:

  • Disrupted sleep
  • Increased energy and alertness
  • Drowsiness
  • Cough suppression
  • Pain reduction
  • Psychosis
  • Weight loss

While not all of these effects are necessarily negative, some negative short-term effects include:

  • Tremors
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation 

How Long Does Kratom Stay In Your System?

There is currently no drug test for kratom. However, the duration of the chemicals presence in your body lasts due to:

  • Frequency of use
  • Age
  • Genetics
  • Body fat
  • Metabolic rate
dxm and kratom

Mixing DXM and Kratom

It is possible to abuse both DXM and kratom to provide a sedative effect on the mind and body. While DXM may do a better job at this than kratom, mixing the two substances can greatly enhance the suppression effects. If taken at the same time, bodily function and critical organs may slow down to a dangerously low point, putting the user at risk of an overdose. The use of Naloxone has been proven to work against a patient overdosing on DXM and may save their life. 

Treatment

Cough syrup addiction and the tendency to mix it with other drugs as seen in popular culture presents a serious risk to those who do not understand the dangers. If you or a loved one is struggling with cough syrup abuse or addiction, please contact us today so we can begin the journey to a sober life.

Ativan and Alcohol

Mixing alcohol with most drugs is likely to nearly always have a negative effect on the body. Many people are hoping to heighten the “positive” effects each drug. However, they do not realize that this also significantly heightens the negative and dangerous effects. Of course, there are ways to prevent the accidental mixing of drugs. However, it is the intentional mixing of two drugs which becomes a serious cause for concern. With the increase in anxiety disorders in the US, there is a correlating increase in the amount of drugs prescribed to treat such ailments. Ativan and Xanax are both drugs with a large number of prescriptions to patients who deal with issues such as anxiety. Further, some people use alcohol as a means to deal with anxiety. Ativan and alcohol are a common and dangerous combination.

What is Ativan?

Ativan is a benzodiazepine with use as a sedative, muscle relaxant or tranquilizer. It is also the brand name for the drug lorazepam. It is in the class of psychoactive drugs. Further, it is one of the most abused pharmaceutical drugs in the US. Other benzodiazepines (or ‘benzos’) include Xanax and Valium. Ativan may be prescribed to treat patients who suffer from:

  • Anxiety
  • Nervous tension
  • Psychological issues
  • Insomnia
  • Epilepsy

Ativan users develop a tolerance over time. A tolerance is the body’s way of getting used to a drug. Overtime, a user will need to continually up their dosage in order to feel the same effects. Thus, because Ativan is such a potent drug, it is rarely prescribed for periods over 4 months. 

Ativan, like most other benzos, works by blocking the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter to essentially slow down overactive mental processes. It is commonly sold in a tablet/pill form and takes around 45 minutes to start feeling the effects. Xanax operates much in the same way as Ativan, but Xanax is more popular in mainstream culture and on the streets. Given that Ativan is a depressant, the side effects will include drowsiness and tiredness. Some other side effects include:

  • Dizziness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Insomnia
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Skin rash
ativan and alcohol

Ativan Abuse and Addiction

Ativan is considered to be a Schedule IV Controlled Substance by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). According to the DEA, a Schedule IV substance is one which has “a low potential for abuse relative to substance in Schedule III.” DEA definitions are based on a relative scale where the drugs are essentially compared in their potential for abuse. While the definition for Schedule IV includes “low potential for abuse”, it is important to realize that it is in comparison to much more potent and dangerous drugs such as Ketamine or Codeine. So make no mistake, Ativan is still very dangerous. So, is Ativan addictive? Absolutely, because not only does Ativan create a physical dependence but it also creates a psychological one. Users who abuse Ativan will likely see the negative consequences in their life but will still continue to abuse the drug. 

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, benzo related overdoses have risen from 1,135 in 1999 to 11,537 in 2017- that is a 916% increase. As a central nervous system depressant, Ativan will slow and suppress the activity of crucial organs such as the lungs. In some cases, taking too much Ativan can completely stop your breathing. 

ativan and alcohol

Knowing the signs of an overdose can save your life or the life of someone else:

  • Pale, cool, bluish skin or lips
  • Very shallow, slow breathing
  • Over-sedation
  • Drowsiness
  • Loss of coordination/motor skills
  • Slurred speech
  • Memory loss
  • Confusion
  • Weakness
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Unresponsiveness

Any overdose is a serious medical emergency and requires immediate attention. 

How Long Does Ativan Stay In Your System?

The half-life of Ativan is around 12 hours. A chemical half-life is the determination of how long it takes for the chemical to reduce to half of its initial ingested amount. 10mg of Ativan will take 12 hours to effectively become 5mg in the body. However, an active metabolite of Ativan, glucuronide has a half life of 18 hours. It takes around 5 days for 95% of the lorazepam to leave your body. While the drug may have left your body, traces of it and its metabolites may remain longer in the body and can be detected with various tests.

Ativan can be detected in your system by:

  • Urine- up to 6-9 days after ingestion
  • Blood- up to 3 days
  • Saliva- around 8 hours
  • Hair follicle- up to 4 weeks
ativan and alcohol

While these figures can provide a good estimation of the effectiveness of drug tests, there are several other factors which must be considered when determining how long Ativan stays in your system.

  • Body composition- your build/composition will play a big factor in how long traces can be detected. Everything from your height and weight, genetics, metabolic rate, age and body fat percentage.
  • Frequency of use- your history with Ativan (essentially any benzodiazepine) will determine how well your body processes it. As previously mentioned, Ativan users will develop a tolerance which will then increase how long it takes for your body to process the drug. 

Mixing Ativan and Alcohol

Ativan and Alcohol are both central nervous system depressants. They both release GABA which decreases and slows bodily and nerve function. The effects of both drugs are quite similar. The biggest risk of mixing the drugs is the possibility of an overdose. Slowing down bodily function will lead to a drop in blood pressure and slowed breathing. In some cases, breathing can completely stop leading to a blackout and overdose. Taking the drugs together may also lead to engaging in dangerous behavior such as driving or taking other serious risks.

ativan and alcohol

How To Get Help

Dealing with alcohol or benzodiazepine addiction can be difficult. It can impact all aspects of your life and usually requires the help of trained professionals to help you along your journey to recovery. It is important to find treatment that addresses addiction issues as well as mental health. If you or a loved one needs help, please contact us today.

Ambien and Alcohol

Americans are now more distracted than ever. Since the end of the 20th century, more and more screens have been introduced into the average household. Smartphones, tablets, laptops, massive TVs- all contribute to the increase in sleeping disorders. Many people turn to options like Ambien to help. A lot of people in America also drink alcohol, sometimes even with the thought that it helps sleep. Subsequently, the increasing risk of mixing Ambien and alcohol is a real danger.

ambien and alcohol

What is Ambien?

Ambien is the brand name for Zolpidem Tartrate, which is a sedative and falls under the hypnotic class of medication. In general, the purpose is to treat insomnia in patients and is seen as a better alternative to benzodiazepines or barbiturates. Ambien’s design is to provide the same sleep relief as other drugs but without the dangerous side-effects commonly associated with drugs such as Valium. It was approved by the FDA in 1992 during a time where the prevailing sleep-aid, Halcion, was being linked with psychosis, suicide and addiction and was welcomed with open arms. 

ambien and alcohol

Ambien works by binding and activating GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors in the brain. GABA is a neurotransmitter which is responsible for blocking impulses between nerve cells in the brain. Ambien binds to the same receptors as benzodiazepines. By binding to the receptors, the chemical essentially slows down brain function, making it easier to fall asleep. While Ambien became popular because it was believed to have less of the harmful side effects of other sleep-aids available at the time, it comes with its own risks:

  • Daytime drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Nausea
  • “Drugged” feeling
  • Insomnia
  • Confusion
  • Headache

Some of the serious side effects of Ambien include:

  • Memory loss
  • New or worsening depression
  • Abnormal thoughts
  • Thoughts of suicide
  • Hallucinations
  • Confusion
  • Agitation
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Anxiety

Ambien Addiction and Abuse

A chemical tolerance is when a higher dose is required to get the same desired results while taking a drug. Essentially, the body gets used to the drug and more of it is required to feel the effects. Unfortunately, Ambien tolerance develops quickly in some patients. Ambien was never designed to be a long-term use drug. However, some patients require their physician to increase the dosage to get the same relief. Increasing the dosage may cause users to develop a dependency to the drug. Some may find that they are unable to fall asleep without it.

ambien and alcohol

In high doses, it is possible for Ambien to provide a euphoric high, which is then be sought after by some. At this point, normal use begins to turn to abuse. According to SAMHSA, Ambien abuse is rare with those who are have a prescription. It is more likely to be with those who acquire it illicitly.

Overdose of Ambien is possible. According to SAMHSA, there were 64,175 Ambien related emergency room visits (ER) and of those 20,793 were related to over-medication. While your risk of overdose will depend on various factors such as body composition, tolerance level and history of use, it is generally considered that taking more than 150mg per kilogram of body weight is lethal. An individual weighing 50 kilograms will need to take 7,500mg of Ambien to experience a fatal overdose. While that may seem like a lot of medication, the 150mg can be greatly reduced when taken with other drugs, especially alcohol. 

How Long Does Ambien Stay in Your System?

Once Ambien enters the body, it takes around 30 minutes for the drug to reach peak potential blood concentration meaning that the full effects are felt around this mark. Compared to other drugs, this is quite fast. However, Ambien has a short half-life of around 1.5 hours. A chemicals half-life is a determination of the time it takes for the chemical to reduce to half of its ingested dose. In other words, after 1.5 hours, the 10mg dose of Ambien is essentially reduces to 5mg. However, it’s possible to feel the effects of the drug for 8 hours and the chemicals will be completely out of the body in about 14 hours. 

It is possible to detect Ambien in the body after the 14 hour mark in various tests:

  • Urine – 72 hours after use
  • Hair – 3 to 5 weeks after use
  • Saliva – 8 hours after use

Drug testing for Ambien is quite rare however circumstances such as traffic incidents may call for testing.

Mixing Ambien and Alcohol

Alcohol is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. A CNS depressant will slow brain and nerve function thus having an effect on motor and cognitive function. Ambien has very similar CNS depressant effects by binding to the GABA receptors in the brain. Two depressants or drugs mixed together (also referred to as polysubstance abuse) will amplify the overall effects and can pose serious overdose risks. According to the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), mixing alcohol with other depressants such as Ambien can cause drowsiness, slowed or difficulty breathing, impaired motor skills, and memory problems. With two powerful depressants working, it can cause breathing to slow to a dangerously low level or stop completely. Death can also occur by engaging in dangerous behavior often associated with alcohol use. 

Getting Help

Getting off Ambien may seem difficult. Especially if the user has been using it for an extended period and believes it is necessary for a good night’s sleep. Someone with a problem with ambien and alcohol needs specialized help. However, with the proper attention and guidance, recovery is possible. If you or a loved one is struggling with addiction, please contact us today to see how we can help.

*Resources:
Hypnotic medications and suicide – NIH
Emergency Department Visits – SAMHSA
Harmful Interactions – NIAAA